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GOVERNMENT RESOLUTION 1163/2020 (21st April)

on Hungary’s National Security Strategy

2021. június 21. 10:00


Published in: Magyar Közlöny

GOVERNMENT RESOLUTION 1163/2020 (21st April)

on Hungary’s National Security Strategy

1) The Government hereby adopts Hungary’s National Security Strategy document entitled “A Secure Hungary in a Volatile World” (see Appendix 1).

2) The Government calls on ministers who are assigned the relevant tasks and authorities to revise and develop sector-specific strategic documents to serve the implementation of Hungary’s National Security Strategy document, “A Secure Hungary in a Volatile World” (see Appendix 1).

Responsible: ministers who are assigned the relevant tasks and authorities
Deadline: 31st December 2020

3) This Resolution shall come into force on the day following its publication.

4) Government Resolution 1035/2012 (21st February) on Hungary’s National Security Strategy shall simultaneously be repealed.


(Viktor Orbán)
Prime Minister




Appendix 1 to Government Resolution 1163/2020 (21st April)

Hungary’s National Security Strategy
A Secure Hungary in a Volatile World

I Introduction

1) Since the publication of Hungary’s National Security Strategy in 2012, the global security environment has undergone profound changes. These processes put a premium on security-related thinking and the need to identify responses to new challenges. These new challenges stem from an emerging multi-polar world order; efforts to restructure the rules guiding relations between international actors; the changing nature of security challenges; global challenges such as the acceleration of climate and demographic changes with which illegal and mass migration and the depletion of natural resources are closely associated; and finally, the transformative effects of the technological revolution on society.

2) One of the most decisive characteristics of the underlying processes that influence our security environment is that their emergence, evolution, and impact are difficult to project, thus resulting in increasing uncertainty. For this reason, the solid system of Hungary’s values, attributes, and priorities must be at the centre of our responses to the array of challenges. The development of the national economy, particularly the development of the defence industry, is a determining factor in this regard. Accordingly, Hungary and the Hungarian nation must, in all cases, be the basis of our responses to the global, European, and national challenges influencing Hungary’s security.

3) The goal of Hungary’s National Security Strategy is to preserve and reinforce our nation’s current level of security, as well as to ensure that the country will continue to develop in a volatile world. To this end, we will outline the nation’s vision and discuss our unique values, attributes and security environment. We will proceed to identify the most important challenges with the related responses and opportunities, with our national interests as a starting point.

II The Nation’s Vision in the Context of Security

4) In a volatile world, making Hungary secure and successful in the long run requires the efforts and cooperation of the nation as a whole, including the preservation of the Hungarian language and culture – both within and beyond our borders.

5) A secure Hungary will have social and economic strength, a committed citizenry, and a governmental vision that enables it to project predictability, a willingness to cooperate, and, if necessary, the capacity for resilience and deterrence, even under conditions of increasing global uncertainty. We are committed to ensuring that by 2030, Hungary will become one of the five safest countries in Europe and one of the ten safest countries in the world. This is to be achieved by maintaining high levels of public safety, as well as through the creation of a modern military of regional significance, which can rely on an export-capable domestic defence industry. The ongoing development of the Hungarian Defence Forces will further expand our ability to defend our fundamental values and interests and to remain an active and credible contributor to Euro-Atlantic security in the future.

6) We lay down the foundations for a successful Hungary today, but securing the conditions of sustainable development remains a long-term endeavour. In economic terms, this hinges on the ability to increase Hungary’s international competitiveness and to establish and develop industrial capacities within the defence sector, while the social pillar of sustainable development is the improvement of our nation’s demographic situation.

III Our Fundamental Values

7) A Hungary with strong, national foundations guarantees the survival of the Hungarian people and is the framework of our national existence. Our millennial statehood, our language and culture, our history and traditions, and our system of values grounded in our Christian heritage represent a valuable contribution to the diversity of Europe. We respect different cultures, but we insist on our own Hungarian identity at all times. In addition to our national culture rooted in Christianity, the foundations of the Hungarian state are also comprised of Hungary’s land, natural endowment – and, above all, the Hungarian people themselves, through their efforts and patriotism.

8) Our national sovereignty is an unquestionable fundamental value that is a natural feature of both Hungarian foreign and domestic policy. Our primary security policy interest is to defend, preserve, and strengthen the Hungarian state’s self-determination and freedom of action even in a constantly evolving environment. The security of Hungary and the Hungarian citizens is another fundamental value in the political, economic, financial, social, technological, environmental, health, military, law enforcement, information, and cyberspace dimensions. Therefore, the provision, maintenance, and further enhancement of our security is a necessary precondition for successfully pursuing any governmental objective.

9) Hungary deems any effort prescribing mandatory settlement of stateless persons and foreign citizens into the country’s territory to be contradictory to our national sovereignty and therefore unacceptable.

10) As a democratic state governed by the rule of law, Hungary is committed to maintaining a public law system and an organisation of the state that promotes political stability and the fulfilment of the values and laws expressed in the Fundamental Law. Hungary seeks to ensure an adequate level of legal security through the creation of a legal system that is able to adapt to socioeconomic fluctuations while remaining stable and predictable. Citizens’ rights are protected by an effective public administration and an independent judiciary system.

11) Hungary attaches outstanding importance to the closely interrelated values of peace, security, and the territorial sovereignty and integrity of states. Hungary regards respect for democracy, the rule of law, and human rights – including collective and individual minority rights and the right to liberty – as integral elements of both national and international security.

12) Hungary does not regard any country as its enemy and wishes to settle disputes peacefully in accordance with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations (UN) and the norms of international law.

13) We feel particular responsibility for promoting the prosperity of Hungarian communities in their homelands beyond our state borders and for the protection of persecuted Christian minorities. Hungary contributes to the stability of the region through a minority policy that supports the preservation and development of ethnic/national minorities living within its borders in all respects, while upholding relations with the Hungarian communities beyond its borders and supporting their legitimate aspirations. Depriving Hungarian communities beyond our borders of their existing rights is in conflict with European and Euro-Atlantic values and is therefore deemed unacceptable. Hungarian citizens living outside its borders constitute an inseparable part of the Hungarian nation not only in terms of culture, but also in terms of public law. Our nation’s security and the security of Hungarian citizens living abroad mutually reinforce one another.

14) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the cornerstone of Hungary’s security. As a member of NATO, Hungary is committed to act in unison with its Allies in the event of an armed attack, as stipulated in Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty.

15) Hungary believes in a successful European Union (EU) that respects the sovereignty of its Member States, enjoys their unanimous support and advances the development of European and national communities, the improvement of the continent’s global competitiveness, and the effectiveness of defence against shared challenges.

16) It is our firm belief that Central Europe is not only bound together in terms of history and culture, but also by specific joint political and economic interests. Our goal is to be actively involved in forging ever closer regional ties in this region forming a natural unity, primarily within the framework of the Visegrád Group and other multilateral formations and initiatives for regional capability development.

17) We regard the EU and NATO as communities of shared Western civilizational values. Hungary is committed to the values expressed in the NATO and EU treaties. In addition to the primacy of our specific national interests, we regard the contents of the NATO and EU strategic documents as guiding principles for determining security risk factors.

18) Hungary firmly believes that most challenges require multilateral and global responses. These responses can only be arrived at through dialogue and trust between states. Hungary regards security cooperation forums that have an important effect on global and European affairs – such as the United Nations, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the Council of Europe – as vital platforms for pursuing national interests.

19) Historically, the Carpathian Basin always formed a traditional buffer zone between great powers. Today, Hungary is one of the border countries of the EU, the Schengen Area, and NATO; accordingly, the defence of our nation – and in a broader sense the protection of the values of our civilisation – is our fundamental task and historic duty.

IV Our Fundamental Attributes

20) Hungary’s political system is stable, its public safety situation is solid. Our primary attributes are the unity, language, and culture of our nation, both within and beyond our borders, based on our Hungarian identity and common destiny.

21) By global, European, or regional measures, Hungary’s size, the performance of its national economy, and its defence capabilities all highlight the fact that appropriate responses to fundamental security challenges should primarily be based on international cooperation as part of an alliance, while at the same time remaining true to our national interests and pursuing our national values.

22) Membership in NATO and the European Union substantially enhances our nation’s security and its ability to advance its interests on an international level, and significantly extends its possibilities. Hungary’s achievements during its Euro-Atlantic and European integration have strengthened the security of NATO and the EU and Hungary itself alike.

23) Hungary lies on the southern and eastern borders of both NATO and the EU, in the vicinity of unstable regions. Our geostrategic position provides us with unique opportunities, but also leaves us vulnerable from a security perspective. Hungary is affected by security challenges originating from both the southern and eastern regions neighbouring Europe. At the same time, our central location also facilitates our participation in NATO, the EU, the Visegrád Cooperation, and other multilateral formations and regional capability development programmes.

24) Part of Hungary’s border will remain the external border of the Schengen Area in the foreseeable future. Increased monitoring and control of the Schengen borders requires more efficient cooperation and shared responsibility from all participating states. Thanks to the efforts of recent years, we have developed an integrated border defence capability that rests on three pillars: a physical border barrier, a regulatory environment that enables effective action, and an adequate number of trained personnel – supplied with modern equipment – defending the border.

25) The Hungarian Defence Forces (HDF) are the fundamental institution safeguarding Hungary’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. Regarding their international role, the HDF are an important tool of foreign policy. The Hungarian Defence Forces are committed to defending our homeland and actively contribute to reinforcing both transatlantic and European security. Hungarian soldiers have proved their dedication and expertise in many parts of the world.

26) Carrying out the duties necessary to safeguard the nation, as well as participating in and providing a valuable contribution to the collective defence, crisis management, and other international security cooperation activities within the framework of alliance systems requires an appropriate degree of self-sufficiency in the fields of defence, law enforcement, disaster management, and counter-terrorism alike.

27) The Hungarian Defence Forces were left without comprehensive and systematic development in the two decades following the 1989 regime change. Indeed, prior to 2010 their capacities were deliberately reduced, thus putting Hungary’s security at risk. The Zrínyi 2026 National Defence and Armed Forces Development Programme (thereafter referred to as the Zrínyi 2026 Programme) laid the foundations for armed forces that are capable of reacting at short notice, that constitute a credible deterrent in peacetime, and are capable of providing effective defence and assistance in crises or operations conducted in accordance with Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty. As a result of the comprehensive reorganisation of its armed forces, Hungary shall establish military capabilities that can meet international commitments, carry out national duties, and are regionally significant. This will be funded from the year 2024 in accordance with the relevant NATO guideline, with at least 2% of Hungary’s gross domestic product.

28) The Zrínyi 2026 Programme declares that the force goals of the armed forces will be achieved through the development of domestic defence industry. The Hungarian defence industry sector falls far below the required standard, and certain activities have ceased completely. An appropriate response to current security challenges and the demands of modern warfare require complex and expensive weapons systems which in turn require the development of the Hungarian defence industry. The modern (civilian) production and research and development base established in Hungary and the available trained workforce can augment this effort.

29) A fundamental characteristic of the European defence industry is that larger countries with more advanced defence industry technology bases use their dominance to assert their interests relative to other European countries – including Hungary. Another major difficulty is that it has become impossible for small countries and enterprises to become involved in international defence industry value chains and to act as suppliers, thus providing the industries of the dominant countries with one-sided advantages. In this environment, the domestic defence industry has no choice but to pursue the following goals: diversifying production, specifically opening towards manufacturing products for the civilian market; striving for specialisation, thus enabling it to fill niches in the market; and developing as well as producing dual-purpose products.

30) The quality of civil protection infrastructure has deteriorated in the decades since the 1989 regime change, while the diversity and effectiveness of strategies and means threatening the state’s ability to function have grown significantly. The development of a “whole-of-government” approach to defence administration is the first step towards the development of a modern national resilience. Protection of critical national infrastructure and safe employment of technologies related to radioactive materials are ensured in line with relevant legislation. However, the continuously expanding offensive capacities of potential adversaries will demand constant adaptation.

31) Our resilience in the face of hybrid attacks is strengthened by our national unity, the strength of our democracy, our common language, an accelerated decision-making process, and the close cooperation of armed forces and law enforcement – both with each other and with the relevant civilian actors. In light of the new security challenges, however, our defences against information and cyber warfare must be continuously developed.

32) The Government of Hungary is doing its utmost to ensure the cyber security of the country, and we are also constantly improving our capacities in this field. Given the increasing frequency and sophistication of attacks against governmental and other essential info-communications systems, continuous effort is required to strengthen their defence. Even though an adequate level of cyber security awareness is key to preventing cyber security incidents, the general level of cyber security awareness among users is still low.

33) Hungary is deeply integrated into the global economy, particularly into the European value chain. This advantage, brought about by the work and expertise of the Hungarian labour force as well as global and European economic growth, can also turn into a vulnerability in the event of a sudden crisis or downturn in the global economy. Our natural resources are limited, our need for foreign direct investment and our import-dependence is high, and exports are a mainstay of the Hungarian economy.

34) One of the greatest contemporary challenges relating to the supply of natural gas is our dependence on imports, which meet over 80 percent of our demand. Not only does this present a challenge in terms of the security of supply, but it also makes Hungary exposed to changes in import prices. The noteworthy global changes within the energy sector also foreshadow a significant reorganisation of the European – and therefore also the Hungarian – energy market. In the future, methods and processes of using electricity and natural gas will change substantially, most likely resulting in the redistribution of relative consumption ratios of electricity and natural gas – namely, in a significant increase in the proportion of electricity.

35) Hungary’s lignite, sub-bituminous, and bituminous coal reserves are the country’s only domestically available non-renewable energy source. With the development of suitable technologies (clean coal technologies), these resources could provide the raw material for hundreds of years to come in a modern, diversified energy supply system.

36) Hungary’s financial vulnerability has decreased considerably in recent years. However, our dependence on international financial markets remains a risk factor. Maintaining the stability and resilience of Hungary’s economic and financial system is an important national interest and security policy issue, as well as a question of sovereignty.

37) Hungary possesses a modern industry that significantly contributes to the country’s economic development. In order to turn achievements to date into long-term economic stability, we are currently strengthening competitive Hungarian businesses with strong capital positions and modern production technologies, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises.

38) Hungary’s agriculture sector provides a sufficient domestic food supply in most areas. The level of food security is high. Regarding exports, the total ban on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) could represent a medium-term competitive advantage. Adapting to global climate change could, however, pose challenges and generate further tasks for Hungary.

39) Due to its geographical location, environmental damage in neighbouring countries can heavily impact Hungary, especially its stocks of drinking water.

40) Hungary is vulnerable in terms of its energy supply due to its position as a landlocked country with no access to the sea and the unidirectional energy infrastructure that has developed for historical reasons.

41) Hungary’s population has been decreasing for decades and the mean age of society is rising. In order to prevent permanent population decline, Hungary is implementing a conscious and robust demographic policy supporting the birth of children in families.

42) Further improving the quality of Hungarian public and higher education systems requires a continuous effort to meet the increasing demands placed on education and vocational training by a knowledge-based economy and society. Natural sciences and engineering education are especially important because the position we occupy in the international competition in the fields of science and technology is significant in terms of security policy. A balance needs to be struck between teaching practical knowledge and passing on our national culture.

43) Hungarian communities beyond our borders can serve as a bridge that links us together, but if left unaddressed, their problems can also easily become a source of tension.

V Hungary’s Security Environment

44) Hungary’s security situation is currently stable, and its membership in NATO and the EU further increases this security. The evolving nature of challenges and certain tendencies within the security environment foreshadow a gradual deterioration, which is mainly characterised by unpredictability, volatility, complexity, increasing rivalry between power centres, the desire to redistribute the global commons, climate change, geostrategic challenges facing our immediate region, frozen conflicts, the declining enforceability of international law, the causes and consequences of migration, overpopulation, resource scarcity, fundamentalist religious trends and terrorism, the transforming nature of crises, the technological revolution, and increasing digital and financial vulnerability.

45) The changes in our security environment are so rapid, radical, and fundamental that they may lead to the emergence of a new world order. The ongoing large-scale economic, social, demographic, and environmental changes in the world, along with the increasing competition for ever scarcer global resources, are sources of significant tensions. The primary characteristic of these changes is that they often merge, accelerate, and morph into complex challenges.

46) Interdependence among states increased further as a result of globalisation. Consequently, global developments affect the security situation of every country. The nature of crises has undergone a significant transformation. Crises may develop and spread rapidly to other countries and regions without early warning and at short notice. Conventional wars between states are often replaced by conflicts that are difficult to categorise. Asymmetric and hybrid warfare – where emerging or resurgent states or non-state actors use a diverse array of military and non-military means to assert their interests, often covertly – are gaining ever more ground. This method of warfare blurs the otherwise clearly-defined boundaries between peace and war, leading to transitional situations below the threshold of armed conflict – “grey zones” that do not meet the definition of war and are difficult to assess. The lack of an appropriate defence capability may not only make it difficult for the target of an attack to give a rapid and determined response or prepare preventive measures, but may even render it completely impossible.

47) Rivalry between various global and regional power centres is continuously growing. The number of state and non-state actors striving to weaken the current international order and to shape this order in accordance with their interests is increasing, as are the opportunities available to them. Overall, the global security situation shows a deteriorating tendency.

48) Competition for power is also gradually expanding to the global commons; for control over international waters and the resources they contain, the Arctic region, space, and for domination in cyberspace. Rapid technological development (digitalisation, fifth-generation wireless networks [5G], space technology, etc.) results in the constant emergence of new opportunities as well as challenges that have an impact on our country’s security. The technology that 5G represents has the potential to enable revolutionary developments that could in turn generate considerable changes to our society and economy.

49) Global warming and the increasingly extreme weather conditions are contributing to worsening internal difficulties for certain states. The effects of climate change can be felt everywhere, but are appearing particularly strongly in regions which are already vulnerable for other reasons, thus exacerbating existing social and economic problems.

50) The global trends that negatively impact the stability of the international system are expected to remain with us permanently. The Euro-Atlantic and European security architecture is facing challenges and threats unprecedented since the end of the Cold War from both the East and the South. There is a demographic explosion underway, primarily in Africa and Central Asia, while the population of our continent is essentially stagnating and becoming older in terms of its mean age. This could lead to the destabilisation of more states and regions and to a further increase in migratory pressure.

51) The military aspect of security has grown in significance. State actors that pose a challenge to the security of the Euro-Atlantic region are rapidly increasing their military expenditure and capabilities, while non-state actors are increasingly acquiring strategic strike capabilities. The probability of an armed attack against Hungary or its Allies is currently low. However, considering the general deterioration of the security environment and the highly fragile security of certain neighbouring regions, the emergence of conventional conflicts or the possibility of unexpected attacks in the immediate vicinity of Hungary, including attacks against our Allies that reach the threshold of Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, cannot be ruled out. This is particularly important, given the low predictability of the outbreak of conflicts in terms of their place, time, and nature.

52) Great powers’ ambitions that disregard international law could undermine the security of Europe – and, indirectly, the security of Hungary. The annexation of territory through aggression has fundamentally changed our security environment, significantly increasing the risk of a potential confrontation. We must continue to strive for dialogue, but we must also be prepared to deter – and defend ourselves and our Allies against – acts of aggression, possibly even without notice, committed by either conventional or non-conventional means.

53) In most cases, not only have crises of the recent decades in the regions crucial for the security of Hungary remained unresolved, but new intractable crises have emerged on our continent and in Europe’s geopolitical environment. The active and frozen conflicts in our immediate and more distant neighbourhood could persist in the long run, or could reignite, thus potentially impacting Hungary, too.

54) Many countries are reacting to the changed security environment by improving their defence capabilities. The coherent and mutually transparent capability development efforts of European countries undertaken within NATO, the EU, and regional multilateral frameworks play a key role in preserving the continent’s long-term security. A subsequent risk factor is that the rapid modernisation of armed forces could lead to the erosion of the balance of military power and thus result in increased instability in some regions of the world.

55) Hungary does not develop robust strategic offensive capabilities, and therefore attaches great importance to the activities of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation systems and views them as a priority. We are members of most of the international treaties and agreements of this nature. We have long played an active role in the security and defence policy cooperation and activities within the framework of multilateral organisations. The rapid development of strategic strike technologies and capabilities, the proliferation of such weapons systems and the increasing spread of small arms and explosive devices in unstable regions pose a major risk to both Hungary as well as Hungarian military and police personnel deployed on international missions.

56) Despite recent progress, the security situation of the Western Balkans remains fragile. The western integration of the region remains incomplete, and in addition, uncontrolled illegal mass migration poses major challenges to countries located along the main migration routes. Potential political and economic instability could also bolster religious radicalism. These phenomena could be partially offset by successes in the Euro-Atlantic integration of some of the countries in the region. Hungary is significantly more exposed to the challenges facing the Western Balkans than most European countries, therefore Hungary bears a great responsibility for the success of stabilisation efforts in the Western Balkans.

57) The crisis caused by mass migration has a fundamental effect on Hungary’s security. The crisis made clear that unexpected, uncontrolled illegal mass migration is a new type of challenge that could undermine the security and stability of the European continent, while generating a multitude of national security, public safety and public health risks. Global developments suggest that this challenge will be with us on the long run.

58) The primary cause of uncontrolled illegal mass migration is that in many regions over different continents there is a significant increase in the number of inadequately governed and politically, economically and socially unstable states that only have a limited and poor ability to perform their basic functions. These states are usually characterised by the concurrent phenomena of overpopulation, widespread poverty and negative environmental impacts. We must also take into account that if in the long run the crisis caused by mass migration remains unresolved, it could gradually weaken the transit and destination countries and undermine their social cohesion. Some state or non-state actors could see the crisis as an opportunity to advance their own interests, and could even take steps to exacerbate the migration crisis. Consequently, waves of illegal migration could also become a tool of hybrid warfare.

59) Supplying the population with drinking water and food represents an increasingly serious challenge in many regions of Africa and Asia, as well as in many other places around the world. This presents a major security risk. Renewable sources of energy and environmentally friendly technologies represent an increasing proportion of the global energy supply.

60) The religious persecution of Christian minorities in unstable regions is a growing problem, and presents a humanitarian and moral challenge to Europe and Hungary. As experience from the most recent conflicts shows, the situation is particularly grave in the Levant, which requires more focus from the international community and Hungary.

61) The scarcity of the most vital resources can lead to significant inter-state and intra-state conflicts in the short and medium term. Growing demand for natural resources leads to intensified competition, substantial environmental damage, the increasing depletion of resources, and their reduced availability, which in turn leads to additional tensions. While sustainable development will continue to deliver results, ensuring it and consequently the stability of societies will become an increasingly difficult task.

62) The rapid spread of certain diseases could be a source of instability on national, regional, or even global levels. The development of new global pandemics cannot be ruled out, the spread of which may occur more rapidly than ever before as a result of rising global trade, personal mobility, and uncontrolled illegal mass migration.

63) The development of a pandemic in our globalised world may not only lead to a health crisis, but – depending on its gravity (the number of people affected, virulence, mortality rates, etc.) – could also have a far-reaching impact on most dimensions of security (economic security, social security, military security, etc.). Modern medicine can only partially offset the negative epidemiological effects of globalisation.

64) The global spread of the coronavirus pandemic is a warning and an even clearer indication of the link between uncontrolled illegal mass migration and the increase in security risks – including possible health risks.

65) The internal difficulties of countries that are the sources of migration could escalate within a short time, resulting in failed states – or even in civil war, which could spread across borders and expand into an international conflict. Instability facilitates the emergence of threats that transcend borders, such as terrorism, the trafficking in arms, drugs, people and human organs, as well as uncontrolled illegal mass migration. These effects originating from unstable regions and crisis zones also affect Hungary.

66) The acts of terrorism committed on our continent indicate that terrorism motivated by religious extremism is an increasing security risk for the states of Europe. Uncontrolled illegal mass migration aimed at Europe also directly increases the threat of terrorism. Accordingly, the spread of instability and crises contributes to an increase in terrorism, which is one of today’s gravest, and most unpredictable, asymmetric threats. It represents a direct, long-term danger to global security – and particularly to the security of Europe.

67) The measures introduced to curb uncontrolled illegal mass migration and its accompanying phenomena – including the establishment of a physical border barrier and the tightening of legal regulations – have temporarily resulted in a significant decrease in the number of migrants passing through Central and Eastern Europe. Migratory pressure on the continent is increasing due to the instability that continues to characterise Europe’s southern and south-eastern neighbourhood, which could lead to a reappearance of the crisis and further waves of migration.

68) There is an increase in the number, diversity, and effectiveness of strategies sponsored by state and non-state actors aiming to influence political, economic, and social processes. Turning international public opinion against Hungary in an organised and systematic manner could be one form of such influence. The effectiveness of information operations is enhanced by the rapid propagation of fake news and disinformation via social media. Overt efforts to influence may also manifest themselves in the exertion of political and economic pressure, where international stakeholders with interests inimical to ours may attempt to restrict Hungary’s ability to act.

69) Technological development and the availability of new technologies are also leading to an increase in the influence of non-state actors that endanger security and are difficult to control within international security policy. They include organised crime syndicates, international terrorist organisations, cybercrime groups, extremist religious communities, private security contractors, certain non-governmental organisations, and other transnational networks. The possible interests and groups behind these organisations may be difficult to identify and could easily serve covert state intentions. This reshapes the security situation of certain regions and makes it confusing and difficult to assess, also representing a challenge for Hungary.

70) As a result of the rapid development and availability of information technology, the functioning of the state and society is increasingly based on digitalisation. The vulnerability of electronic information systems therefore presents a security risk. The frequency, sophistication, and progressively harmful impact of malicious activities in cyberspace is a rising global trend.

71) There is an increase in the number of states and non-state actors using cyberspace to collect data of critical importance illegally and to cause damage – including physical damage – to or through electronic information systems. Therefore, cyberspace is regarded as a separate operational domain today, alongside land, sea, air and outer space. It is highly probable that future conflicts will extend to cyberspace to an even greater extent.

72) Today’s greatest information technology challenge is the limited availability of an integrated system for accessing the massive quantity of available information. In Hungary, there remains significant unexploited potential in the opportunities arising from the general abundance of information. The application of processes supported by machine-based learning presents both considerable opportunities and risks, but the exponential increase in the quantity of data means that its introduction in the near future is inevitable.

73) As a result of the rapid development achieved within the field of space technology, we can expect a huge qualitative technological leap forward. The technological gap between the frontrunners and those left behind is continuously increasing. As a sector at the apex of the technological pyramid, space technology will have decisive importance in determining individual countries’ levels of development, economic and social strength and relations, and their ability to pursue their political interest.

74) The proliferation and development of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery is creating great unpredictability, and poses a permanent risk to the security of the transatlantic region and Hungary. In recent years, there have been several examples of chemical weapons being used in armed conflict. The fact that certain non-state actors such as terrorist organisations, terrorist groups, and crime syndicates are also striving to acquire and use weapons of mass destruction is also a source of danger since conventional methods of deterrence are only of limited use against them.

75) A possible slowdown of global economic growth and the resulting economic and financial instability also presents a growing risk factor.

76) Another new type of risk is posed by cryptocurrencies, aiming to replace traditional methods of payment, which are now relatively widespread. Their functioning is not yet legally regulated to an adequate extent.

77) Due to a rapidly changing and unpredictable security situation, risks arising from the limited number of sources and transport capacities require us to increase the diversification of energy import. An uninterrupted energy supply is critically important for household consumption and the undisturbed functioning of the economy.

78) Our security environment is increasingly influenced by rapid urbanisation. Over half of the world’s population now lives in cities and this ratio is continuing to increase. Social and environmental dangers are more frequent in large, densely-populated “megacities.” In certain cases, crisis situations that develop in major cities may far exceed the capacity of traditional law enforcement agencies.

79) Organised crime – particularly in its more serious transnational forms – poses an increasing challenge to society, law enforcement, and judicial systems. The horizons of organised crime groups’ international activities have been broadened by the enlargement of the EU, the establishment of the Schengen Area, and the platforms created within the virtual space. The structure of such groups increasingly displays transnational tendencies in addition to national characteristics. In recent years, the spheres, forces, instruments, and methods of organised crime have been transformed. The relevant authorities are continuously monitoring and preventing their attempts to infiltrate the economy and public administration.

80) A security challenge is also presented by groups driven by extremist political, religious, ideological, or other motives who may attempt to disrupt the functioning of constitutional institutions and to gain legitimacy for their antidemocratic political goals by capitalising on social tensions. The societal impact of extremist groups that are prepared to commit acts of violence is negligible due to the activities of the national security services.

81) It is difficult to overestimate the social importance of the security of food supply and food safety. The number of cases involving fake or counterfeit food products and the illegal distribution of products unfit for human consumption seems to be increasing in many countries around the world, including Hungary.

VI Our Fundamental Interests

82) Hungary’s security policy is guided by the notion that the enforcement of our national security interests must be regarded as the starting point in all situations and all necessary measures have to be derived from it. The preservation and reinforcement of our capability to pursue our national interests is pivotal, as are the country’s diplomatic capacity for action, economic performance capability, political stability, cultural unity, and military strength in relation to Hungary’s security in the broadest sense.

83) Hungary regards its primary security interests as follows: preserving its sovereignty, territorial integrity, and constitutional order; guaranteeing the security of its citizens; the country’s stability; its sustainable economic, social, and cultural development; and upholding human rights and fundamental freedoms. Further national security interests include: maintaining international peace, security, stability, and cooperation; promoting democratic principles; facilitating sustainable development; and reinforcing Euro-Atlantic and European security structures.

84) The situation of Hungarians living beyond our borders constitutes an inseparable element of the security of Hungary. In the spirit of the national responsibility towards Hungarians living beyond our borders, as stipulated in the Fundamental Law of Hungary, we are closely monitoring the development of their situation in our neighbouring states. We support the notion that these Hungarian communities should be able to enjoy the forms of self-government and autonomy best suited to their specific situation as communities, while continuing to live in their native lands.

85) The security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic and European region – particularly the Central European region and the countries neighbouring Hungary – are of utmost importance to our security. Moreover, the security situation of the Balkan Peninsula and Eastern Europe also has a decisive effect on our security.

86) The Carpathian Basin is a cultural, historical, geographical, and ecological point of reference for Hungary. While counting on the cooperation of neighbouring countries based on mutual interests, we wish to act proactively in the interest of the economic and transport-related transnational reconstruction of this region.

87) Projecting stability to our immediate neighbours – particularly to the Western Balkan region – is one of our fundamental interests. The region has several features whose unexpected and unfavourable combination could present a security risk. These include state instability, ethnic and religious divisions, high rates of unemployment, and the lack of long-term prospects for Euro-Atlantic integration. The Euro-Atlantic integration of the Western Balkan region is of key importance to solving the problems affecting the region.

88) Hungary has an interest in a strong, democratic, stable, and economically developing Ukraine with whom we can foster balanced bilateral relations. Legitimate efforts to reinforce Ukrainian national identity must not, however, come at the expense of the acquired rights of the Hungarian community in Transcarpathia.

89) We recognise the importance of reinforcing stability in more distant regions that are related to the security of the Euro-Atlantic region, including the Middle East, the North African and Sahel regions, and Central Asia.

90) From the perspective of global stability, we regard it profoundly important that disputed issues arising between states are resolved through negotiation in accordance with the goals and fundamental principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international law.

91) The primary international framework for Hungary’s security and defence policy is its NATO and EU membership. It is in our interest to preserve cohesion between these two organisations and their mutually reinforcing and complementary cooperation. International cooperation within Europe-wide (OSCE) and pan-European (Council of Europe) frameworks also contribute to our security.

92) Preserving close transatlantic relations and the cohesion of NATO is one of our major priorities. We have an interest in a strong, unified Alliance that is capable of reacting to security challenges in a timely manner, utilizing a 360-degree approach.

93) While maintaining the primacy of NATO’s collective defence, the role of the European Union in the field of defence must be significantly strengthened. Therefore, we have an interest in increasing the effectiveness of its common foreign and security policy, including the common security and defence policy. The coordinated development of European defence capabilities and the deepening of EU defence cooperation is vital to making the EU capable of acting in the common defence and effectively managing international crises independently, complementing the activities of NATO.

94) Hungary supports efforts aimed at increasing the defence expenditures of European Union Member States where this generates added value, promotes the development of defence capabilities in harmony with the principles of NATO and the EU, and reinforces the institutions themselves. Provided there is full agreement between Member States, this process could lead to the establishment of a common European defence and a common European military in the long run. Until then, however, the intergovernmental nature of European security and defence cooperation must be preserved.

95) Hungary has an interest in a strong and unified Europe that remains on a successful integration trajectory and offers attractive integration prospects, as our continent can only remain competitive in an evolving world order if it unifies its economic and military strength. Solutions to the major challenges facing the EU – such as the protection of external borders, high levels of debt, the maintenance of international economic competitiveness, and ageing populations – must be sought while simultaneously taking into account cohesion, solidarity, and the national interests of Member States.

96) Considering the future of European integration, Hungary’s position is that the foundations of a strong Europe are formed by free nations and states that have the ability to act. Therefore, Hungary does not envisage the future of the EU as a federation, but as an alliance and an integration of sovereign nation states, while agreeing that these states exercise a well-defined portion of their sovereignty jointly based on their national interests. Accordingly, we regard EU decision-making processes as desirable so long as they are transparent and respectful of the interests of Member States.

97) It is in our country’s interest to participate in or play a leading role in multilateral formations and capability development initiatives at a regional level while taking into account Hungary’s security policy priorities and the gravity of threats at hand.

98) It is of paramount importance to Hungary that the international community be able to take effective action against the effects of uncontrolled economic and other migration-related activities. It is a fundamental priority for us that NATO and the EU as institutions significantly contribute to the resolution of problems within countries of origin, in addition to the individual efforts of Member States. Efforts aimed at the stabilisation of primarily the African continent, the Middle East, and Central Asia are of high importance, and thus Hungary consistently contributes to them.

99) Hungary pays particular attention to the fight against terrorism in all its forms and manifestations: it is in our national interest to take the most determined stand possible against this phenomenon. The fight against terrorism is simultaneously built on preventing acts of terrorism, finding and eliminating terrorist groups and terrorist organisations, managing the consequences of acts of terrorism, reinforcing defence capabilities, and preparing for contingencies.

100) It is in our national interest to develop a national response capability against hybrid warfare, and a multilateral response capability primarily within the framework of NATO and the EU.

101) Hungary regards cyber capabilities which can endanger physical security or are capable of causing major material damage as weapons and their use as armed aggression; therefore, we also reserve the right to respond to such attacks in the physical domain. Considering the difficulties of attribution and the identification of perpetrators involved in cyber operations, responses require particularly careful assessment on a case-by-case basis with the involvement of relevant government agencies.

102) Hungary’s most important goals in the field of energy policy are the reinforcement of energy sovereignty and energy security and the decarbonisation of electricity production, which is only possible through utilising nuclear energy. The diversification of energy supply sources and routes is a fundamental long-term national interest that contributes to strengthening Hungary’s stability and resilience. It is in Hungary’s clear interest to reduce its need for energy imports and to simultaneously ensure the most extensive connections possible to regional electricity and natural gas networks, thus guaranteeing the security of supply and effective import competition. The establishment of an integrated European and regional internal energy market is a key goal.

103) Arms control and non-proliferation regimes are integral components of the European security architecture. Their preservation and effective functioning is a fundamental security interest to Hungary. However, the proliferation of new technologies capable of delivering strategic strikes and the increase in their effectiveness, mobility, and concealability pose major challenges to existing arms control and non-proliferation regimes. It is necessary to approach the existing non-proliferation and arms control system with a fresh, new perspective.

104) Remedying Hungary’s major demographic problems is in the interests of all of our society, and it is also one of the most important national issues we face. Reversing the negative demographic trends by using our own resources and preserving Hungarian culture is a priority of our national and family policy. Our goal is the preservation and reinforcement of our national culture, which is rooted in Christianity, based on Western democratic values, and is receptive to the world. Another fundamental national interest is the ability to maintain social security at a level proportionate to the performance of the national economy and to ensure a sufficient level of child protection and care services.

105) Supporting the Hungarian defence industry, including the funding of research, development, and innovation is a national security interest since this helps reduce our import dependency, increase supply security, and modernise our defence equipment using domestic products.

106) The development of disruptive technologies is a matter of strategic importance. The security of our nation requires that special attention be paid to research and development as well as its defence components in key areas such as cyber defence, artificial intelligence, autonomous systems, and biotechnology.

107) In the interest of increasing our competitiveness while also taking into account national security implications, we must ensure the earliest possible access to state-of-the-art technologies for the Hungarian private sector, including small and medium-sized enterprises.

108) Hungary places great emphasis on further developing the cooperation between the countries of Central Europe. It supports important regional initiatives, processes, and formations as a participant, but is also prepared to assume a leadership role in certain areas.

109) One of Hungary’s vital national interests is the maintenance and further development of the political, economic, defence, and various other cooperation initiatives taking place within the framework of the Visegrád Cooperation (V4). We are open to the possibility that the V4 shall reinforce its cooperation with the other countries in the region and provide capabilities to joint NATO and EU efforts together.

110) As an influential member of the EU and NATO and as the strongest national economy of our continent, the Federal Republic of Germany plays a key role in integration processes and thereby in guaranteeing our continent’s stability. We also regard it as crucial that Germany maintains an extensive and deep-rooted system of relations with most of the states of Central Europe. The traditionally close political, economic, social, and defence relations developed with Germany in both bilateral and multilateral frameworks occupy a privileged position in Hungary’s foreign and security policy. Maintaining such a high level of cooperation and strengthening dialogue on common security and defence policy concepts is a priority for us.

111) The Hungarian and Polish nations are linked by a thousand years of shared history and brotherhood-in-arms. Based on this strong historical foundation, and building on our joint NATO and EU membership, Hungary strives to maintain a strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland – both bilaterally and within the framework of the Visegrád Cooperation. In representing the unique interests of the Central European region, we attach great importance to coordinated political action with Poland within the EU, which is aided by the similarity of our views on the future of European integration.

112) Hungary regards the civilisational, value- and interest-based alliance between Europe and the United States of America as highly important. Accordingly, maintaining the strategic relationship and the high-level defence and economic cooperation with the United States is in Hungary’s fundamental interest. The United States of America will remain a decisive player in international security policy in the future and will increasingly strive to ensure that its Allies and partners take more responsibility in foreign, security, and defence policy alike.

113) The Republic of Italy is Hungary’s strategic partner. There are historically close and diverse cultural as well as significant trade and economic relations between our two countries, which provide a solid foundation for extensive Hungarian–Italian security and defence policy cooperation within the framework of NATO and the EU, as well as in other multilateral formations. Like Hungary, Italy is also greatly impacted by the crisis caused by mass migration, thus forming yet another opportunity for coordinated action.

114) The Republic of France traditionally plays a central role in the development of the European Union’s common security and defence policy, while it is also an active and influential member of NATO. For this reason, it is important for Hungary to maintain and develop the security and defence cooperation with France within multilateral or bilateral frameworks.

115) The Republic of Turkey is a dynamically developing regional power and an Ally in NATO. Due to its geostrategic position, it plays an important role in the security of Europe and Hungary, exerting significant influence on the stability of regions including the Middle East and the Western Balkans. Turkey is also a key partner in handling the migration pressure aimed at our continent. It is in Hungary’s interest to maximise the benefits of the potential inherent in Hungarian–Turkish political, economic, cultural and defence industry cooperation.

116) When determining our national security interests, we must take into account that global power relations are under transformation: the international system is becoming increasingly multipolar in economic, political, and military terms. It is in Hungary’s interest to develop balanced political and expanding economic relations with those other dynamically developing countries – in addition to its Allies and EU partners – that have a significant effect on our region.

117) Pursuing our foreign trade goals, we attach great importance to developing closer relations with the countries and regional organisations of the post-Soviet region, the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. When developing these relations, we rely on the advantages provided by our NATO and EU membership, and take into account solidarity within the Alliance and the EU while refraining from imposing any ideological preconditions. Continued international economic prosperity is in our interest.

118) The Russian Federation is one of the key actors in the international system, serving an indispensable role in managing several global and regional security issues. However, major tensions have developed recently in the relations between NATO and Russia and between the EU and Russia. Amidst the deteriorating security environment, NATO has strengthened its deterrence and defence posture and suspended its practical civilian and military cooperation with Russia. At the same time, it has left the channels of political dialogue open, as the Alliance does not seek a conflict and does not intend to pose a threat to Russia. Given the situation, there is a particular need for political dialogue with Russia and for measures that reduce risk and build confidence. Hungary regards the maintenance of the cohesion of NATO and the EU to be one of its priorities, while it has an interest in the pragmatic development of Hungarian–Russian relations and economic cooperation.

119) The People’s Republic of China has the world’s second largest national economy, as well as being a centre of civilisation. China is taking an increasingly assertive political and military stance proportionate to its economic weight, and it is playing an increasingly important role in the international system. China’s military and security policy aspirations must continue to be monitored in the long run. Hungary is interested in the vigorous and pragmatic strengthening of Hungarian–Chinese relations, in particular in the mutually advantageous involvement in the “Modern Silk Road” programme (the Belt and Road Initiative) aimed at tightening trade relations and linking the continents of Europe, Africa and Asia. While capitalising on economic cooperation, we must also take into account the factors resulting from the vulnerability that may stem from investment in critical infrastructure by an emerging China, its appearance as a possible supplier of state-of-the-art info-communications technology, and in general by an increase in its regional influence.

120) Our key interests include global respect for democracy, the rule of law, human rights – including both collective and individual rights of minorities – and fundamental freedoms by all international actors. This also includes groups increasingly persecuted due to their religious beliefs, especially Christian minorities from Hungary’s perspective.

121) It is in Hungary’s interest to further improve its position in the fields of science and technology, and to belong to the most developed countries (even to the world’s frontrunners) in as many sectors as possible. Within the international division of labour, we must strive to be engaged in global value chains at those points and through those work processes that generate the highest added value, as this is what guarantees the Hungarian economy’s sustainable long-term growth. Accordingly, it is appropriate to concentrate our resources on those sectors that generate high added value.

122) In relation to the objective above, high-level research, development and innovation, as well as modern public education, vocational training and higher education capable of meeting the increasing demands created by our information- and knowledge-based society are of key importance. The further development of the institutional framework for Hungary’s research, development and innovative procedures must be treated as a priority. From a security point of view, higher education in the fields of military, law enforcement and public administration as well as information technology require increased attention. Another highly important task of the education system is to instil knowledge of and respect for our national culture, history, and identity, and to foster patriotism, which strengthens social cohesion as well.

123) Considering the negative effects of climate change, the protection of our natural resources – particularly Hungary’s water reserves, drinking water supply, and arable land – is a matter of strategic importance. Given our unique geographical position, it is important to foster close water security cooperation with the countries in catchment areas.

VII Principal Security Risks

124) In this volatile global environment, Hungary or our alliance systems could be subject to many challenges, risks and threats. In light of our values and attributes identified in Hungary’s National Security Strategy and in the security environment as assessed above, the following challenges have the most significant impact on our national interests:

a) the mass arrival of illegal migrants through the Western Balkan migration route or any other migration route affecting Hungary, and/or the resettlement of foreign population in Hungary;

b) sudden armed attacks;

c) coordinated and comprehensive diplomatic, information and secret service operations coupled with financial-economic pressure, financial speculative attacks or military threats (hybrid) aimed at destabilising Hungary, undermining its governmental capacity, political stability and social unity, and restricting its capacity to assert its interests on the international stage;

d) cyberattacks causing significant damage to government information systems, e-Government, public utility service providers, strategic enterprises, other elements of critical infrastructure, or the computer networks of other organisations that are crucial for the functioning of society;

e) an act of terrorism carried out in Hungary, or against Hungarian citizens or Hungarian interests abroad;

f) attempts at violating our national sovereignty which overtly or covertly appropriate national decision-making competences, as well as actions which significantly worsen the situation of or threaten the viability of Hungarian communities beyond our borders, forcing them to leave their native lands en masse;

g) the development of a critical demographic situation as a result of permanent population decline and the continuous ageing of the population;

h) a reemergence of the international economic crisis or enduring global recession resulting in the deterioration of global and regional value chains;

i) the development of a supply crisis as a result of interruptions in energy imports;

j) the development of major long-term instability or the emergence of a “failed state” within our region or in the immediate neighbourhood of Hungary;

k) attacks or acts of terrorism that endanger the nation’s security as a result of the misappropriation of disruptive technologies by hostile actors;

l) the expansion of crime syndicates and organised criminal groups in Hungary and an increase in their influence;

m) attacks or acts of terrorism against Hungary or the neighbouring countries using weapons of mass destruction or nuclear, radiological, biological or chemical contaminants;

n) industrial accidents and disasters occurring on the territory of Hungary or neighbouring countries with regional consequences;

o) the appearance and rapid spread of a severe infectious disease in Hungary that carries the risk of mass infection of the population;

p) the development of major fluvial or groundwater flooding or the regular occurrence of other natural disasters (prolonged periods of drought, heatwaves and cold spells, violent storms, destructive forest or vegetation fires);

q) the regular occurrence of prolonged periods of water scarcity as a result of global warming, the gradual drying and erosion of the soil, and the destruction of vegetation in certain highly vulnerable Hungarian regions.

VIII Hungary’s Strategic Goals in Relation to Security

125) Within the set of conditions identified by Hungary’s National Security Strategy which describe Hungary’s fundamental values, interests, security environment, and main challenges, the following strategic goals can be identified:

126) In the interests of guaranteeing security, the primary goal is to increase the effectiveness and flexibility of national measures taken, and to reinforce national cooperation. Preventing, managing, and meeting the challenges identified is predominantly a national responsibility and the task of the Government, in cooperation with society. The primary foundation for security is a firm social, economic and financial structure, as well as a sustainable and flexible system of preventive and defensive measures at the national level, including the objective-oriented development of the military and law enforcement agencies (the police, the prison service, the national security services, disaster management, and the tax and customs office in its law enforcement role). However, if threats arise beyond our borders, we must also be capable of responding independently at the national level in case international assistance does not arrive, or does not arrive in time. Efforts to reinforce security, including any international role assumed by Hungary, must be based on broad public support. Guaranteeing Hungary’s security is unimaginable without the active participation of Hungarian citizens with a patriotic commitment and willingness to make sacrifices. Accordingly, it is in the public interest to form and develop patriotism, a patriotic sense of duty and an awareness of matters of security among citizens. The preparation of youth for disaster management, patriotic and home defence education, and the training of volunteer reserve forces will play an important role in doing so beyond increasing the general level of knowledge among the population. It is Hungary’s strategic goal to develop, by 2030, those national resilience, deterrence, defence, crisis management and coordination capabilities which are the prerequisites for the stability and security that national development demands within a volatile international environment. Hungary’s public safety situation, which even in international comparison stands at a high level, must be preserved and further improved.

127) The protection of the fundamental rights of the Hungarian communities beyond our borders must be assured. Hungarian communities beyond our borders occupy a special place in our security policy. Due to the presence of indigenous Hungarian communities in neighbouring states, their unique situation, and their relationship with their mother country, the security of these countries is inseparable from Hungary’s security, and vice versa. As laid down in Hungary’s Fundamental Law, it is Hungary’s responsibility to closely monitor developments in the situation of Hungarians in neighbouring states. We support the notion that Hungarian communities beyond our borders should be able to enjoy forms of self-government and autonomy best suited to their specific situation as communities while they continue to live in their native lands.

128) The development of an effective and export-capable national defence industry is an important cornerstone for guaranteeing security. In conjunction and in harmony with the National Defence and Armed Forces Development Programme, Hungary’s security is guaranteed by the secure functioning of the national economy and its preparation for defence purposes. This is why the Hungarian defence industry must be supported through providing assistance to small and medium-sized defence industry enterprises, procuring the highest possible proportion of products required for defence domestically, supporting research, development and innovation serving defence purposes, and involving Hungarian know-how in defence industry development projects. In parallel to the development of our military’s capabilities, we must strive to create a domestic defence innovation system that enables faster implementation of existing defence planning systems complemented by the rapid and professional implementation of innovative developments and the spread of innovative solutions within the military.

129) In relation to international security challenges, Hungary’s main goal is the development of effective multilateral cooperation in the framework of existing collective and cooperative security systems and European enlargement. By their very nature, a significant proportion of security problems require international cooperation (regional, European, transatlantic or even global). Based on our robust and credible national capabilities, we will be able to further increase our contribution to international security – primarily within NATO, the EU, the UN and OSCE contexts. As a result of military capability development, we are significantly contributing to collective defence enshrined in Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty. We deem as important the possibilities provided by Article 42.7 of the Treaty of Lisbon. We have an interest in the development of NATO and EU defence and response capabilities in relation to non-conventional attacks. One of our main goals is to preserve the cohesion of NATO and the EU. As a result of the erosion of security policy architecture, reinforcing and ensuring full compliance with existing arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation regimes is vital to the security of the Euro-Atlantic region and our homeland. In the interest of the development of neighbouring regions that have the greatest influence on Hungary’s security, the Euro-Atlantic and European integration of these regions must be supported. At the same time, the stabilisation of more distant regions that influence Europe’s security must be primarily supported through active participation in the crisis management activities of international organisations.

130) The development of bilateral or regional security and defence cooperation frameworks must be reinforced. Given that national priorities on assessing the effects and severity of security challenges may differ, we must strive to develop our multilateral or regional responses with the involvement of partners who also have an interest in resolving these key challenges. Our goal is to also make use of regional opportunities with these partners with regard to multilateral capability development and defence formations. Through establishing the Regional Special Operations Component Command (R-SOCC) and the Headquarters Multinational Division – Centre (HQ MND-C) together with regional partners, Hungary is providing a gradually increasing contribution to improving the stability of its immediate environment and the Euro-Atlantic security area.

131) A prerequisite for national security is a global community that has an interest in mutual cooperation. Hungary’s goal is to contribute to sustainable global development. In the interest of helping to maintain global economic growth, we must contribute to the development of the European economic system and global value chains Hungarian innovativeness and the export-oriented, sustained growth of our economy. Hungary’s goal is to be capable of entering into political and economic cooperation with all relevant states. One of the critical conditions for sustainable societal and economic growth and the prevention of natural disasters is the promotion of an environmentally conscious and low-carbon lifestyle in order to reduce the effects of climate change and the economy’s demand for fossil fuels.

IX Comprehensive Tasks and Means

132) Hungary will promote the realisation of its strategic goals in the field of security through predictable, proactive foreign, security and defence policies based on values and interests; maintaining appropriate national armed and law enforcement capabilities; economic and foreign trade instruments; and effective strategic communications of the Government. In accordance with our national goals, we are substantially contributing to international initiatives that are relevant to the strengthening of our security.

133) The Government regards it as its duty at all times to provide the resources necessary to defend and guarantee the security of the country and its citizens, commensurate with the country’s capacity.

134) In military terms, responsibility for Hungary’s security rests with the Hungarian Defence Forces, which must be capable of countering armed aggression against Hungary both independently or together with our Allies, and of supporting whole-of-government efforts aimed at protecting against hybrid attacks.

135) The Hungarian Defence Forces must comprise well-equipped and well-trained forces in addition to flexible, effectively deployable, sustainable, and adequately interoperable capabilities while striving to improve their ability to meet qualitative as well as quantitative requirements. In addition to its conventional territorial defence and international crisis management tasks, they must also be capable of contributing to the management of a crisis caused by mass migration or the threat of terrorism, playing a role in the prevention of hybrid attacks, and assisting in the mitigation of the consequences of natural or industrial disasters. The military must be developed to deliver effects in all the operational domains that are relevant to Hungary: land, air and cyberspace alike.

136) Hungary must possess a defence industry that has adequate potential and capacity to help sustain its defence capabilities. In order to domestically acquire the products required for security and defence, the Hungarian defence industry’s capabilities must be expanded and modernised, while building on the opportunities offered by cooperation within NATO, the European Union, the Visegrád Cooperation or bilateral cooperation with other regional or strategic partners.

137) In accordance with its national interests, Hungary will continue to contribute to managing crises and remedying their root causes in the Western Balkans, the Middle East, Africa, Central Asia and other regions that have an influence on our security – either within the framework of international organisations (NATO, the EU, the UN, the OSCE) or as a member of an ad-hoc coalition. We also intend to participate in post-conflict stabilisation and reconstruction efforts.

138) In addition to participating in operations and missions, our contribution to strengthening the defence and security authorities of the relevant countries and helping to ensure the local conditions required for sustainable development is also deemed important. We must equally be prepared to take on a greater part in civilian monitoring, mentoring, and advisory missions, which play an increasing role in international crisis management.

139) Protecting women and children is one of the most important guiding principles and aspects of international crisis management. A key goal is assuring the protection of public and higher educational institutions and the persons associated with them – particularly children/students. The primary task of public and higher educational institutions is to ensure the protection of children/students – and to provide for their accommodation and care by professionals who have been specifically trained to do so – in the interests of preserving their health, while also protecting the premises and infrastructure. Protecting, defending, and assuring access to the information records and data systems used in the education system is a vital prerequisite for its satisfactory performance.

140) In addition to defence-related cooperation, coherent management of humanitarian aid from collection to shipping and assuring that it reaches its destination in crisis zones is also becoming increasingly important. These activities are also of key importance for Hungary to provide assistance to persecuted Christian minorities worldwide.

141) In addition to fulfilling its allied and international military obligations, Hungary must also undertake an active role in establishing and maintaining multilateral formations and capability development initiatives at a regional level.

142) The need for coordination among state bodies responsible for external and internal security, armed and law enforcement agencies, and civil authorities is greater than ever. Accordingly, coordination and cooperation must be continued and reinforced between the bodies responsible for foreign affairs, defence, law enforcement, national security, crime prevention, justice, economy and finance, public health and epidemiology, food safety, disaster and civilian crisis management.

143) An appropriate response to uncontrolled illegal mass migration and the accompanying risks requires a new approach, as well as innovative, determined and effective action at the governmental, European, and Alliance levels. The objective should be to halt and not only manage uncontrolled illegal mass migration. Prerequisites include effective defence of the EU’s external borders and coordinated action against the causes of migration in the countries of origin. If the root causes are not addressed effectively, all efforts against uncontrolled illegal mass migration will ultimately prove futile, which could be fateful for the future of European civilisation in the long run.

144) In the interest of preventing its massive abuse, the common European asylum system must be transformed and tightened, and the fight against human smuggling must be intensified. All efforts aimed at increasing the willingness of source countries to readmit their people must be supported.

145) We attach particular importance to cooperation with source, transit and host countries. With regard to transit countries, increased attention must be devoted to the Western Balkan region, as mass migration can reach Hungary primarily along this geographical route.

146) Hungary is protecting against the security risks associated with legal immigration through the means of an appropriate visa policy, increasing the effectiveness of procedures aimed at authorising entry and residency, and by intensifying cooperation with EU partners and third countries. In relation to both legal and illegal immigration, we must strive to screen individuals who may represent a risk to national security.

147) The fight against terrorism requires nationally coordinated government activities, the reinforcement of all relevant institutions and capabilities, the harmonisation of areas of competence, horizontal coordination, and the standardisation of risk analysis, risk management, and methods and procedures of communication. The fight against terrorism is inconceivable without close cooperation with NATO and the EU.

148) With respect to prevention, addressing the root causes of terrorism takes centre stage, which includes taking action against extremist ideologies, supporting regional stabilisation efforts e.g. by funding or defence capacity building, and promoting effective governance and sustainable development.

149) One of the priority areas of defence is protecting the potential targets of terrorists, with a particular emphasis on the population and the vital infrastructure of the country. Security of the food supply chain, transport security and border control also demand attention. In addition to preparing the relevant bodies, preparing for emergencies calls for informing the public and developing a victim protection system.

150) In order to guarantee the level of public safety that society expects, it is necessary to continue to change police culture, to strengthen methods of complex crime prevention, and to increase the public’s confidence in police activities. It is among the Government’s top priorities to continuously improve the manpower material and technical conditions for law enforcement bodies. Hungary wishes to preserve its role among the European Union’s frontrunners in terms of the proportion of the gross domestic product devoted to public safety.

151) In order to fight organised crime, it is vital to intensify cooperation between law enforcement bodies (the police and national security services) and the justice system at both the national and international (especially the European Union) level, and to assure the efficient utilisation of existing resources.

152) More pronouncedly than before, the rapidly changing security situation demands that decision-makers continue to have access to the information that is required for the timely recognition of threats and the prevention of conditions that could adversely affect the security of Hungary, and which also constitutes the basis of governmental decisions. Cooperation between law enforcement bodies must be further reinforced in the interest of effective action against factors endangering the security of Hungary – particularly terrorism and organised crime with significant violent tendencies. The information fusion system developed in order to coordinate utilisation of timely and relevant information acquired by law enforcement bodies as well as to coordinate the information requirements of the Government in an objective-oriented manner must be operated efficiently.

153) Groups following extremist ideologies that could endanger the stability of society must be kept from gaining in strength, or any other manifestation of extremist phenomena must be prevented in all possible ways.

154) One of our goals with respect to Hungary’s economic and social stability, which as a corollary is also closely associated with our security policy position, is to continue our growth and export-oriented economic policy to ensure a balanced budget. The means of realising such goals include the development of the Hungarian industry and the enhancement of the real economy’s performance. The balanced performance of the Hungarian economy forms the firm financial foundation for our security policy. Maintaining the conditions for sustained economic growth, increasing employment and combatting the black economy and corruption contribute to increasing our room for manoeuvre in economic policy. The role of Hungarian-owned and strategically managed companies in the economy must be increased. Particular attention has to be paid to drawing up effective Hungarian cryptocurrency regulations.

155) New opportunities for the acquisition and transit of natural gas must be exploited. The development of a North-South energy infrastructure and cross-border gas pipelines (interconnectors) will increase our energy security. The efficiency of energy consumption and the application of renewable domestic energy sources must be increased, thus improving the long-term sustainability of the energy structure. The construction and commissioning of the Paks II Nuclear Power Plant plays a key role in the decarbonisation of the electricity sector. The dependable supply provided by nuclear capacities represents one of the cornerstones of energy security. Furthermore, electricity thus generated is free of carbon dioxide emissions – helping to meet Hungary’s emission reduction goals, and largely contributing to the realisation of the 2030 decarbonisation goals and commitments arising from the Paris Agreement. Efforts must also be made in order to preserve Hungary’s coal and lignite assets as a strategic reserve, and should it be needed, to create a system for the economical and environmentally friendly utilisation of these resources for the long run.

156) In order to halt negative demographic processes, there is a need for a wide range of family policy measures supporting a responsible commitment to bearing children. We must also strive to assure an improvement in both citizens’ general health and mortality rates.

157) The automation of (public) services and certain production processes or their reinforcement with artificial intelligence may provide a partial solution to demographic problems already at the level of small and medium-sized enterprises, but these steps must be part of a comprehensive economic development and social policy strategy that serves to assure that we are prepared in a timely and adequate manner for the all-round exploitation of the opportunities made available by new technologies.

158) In the interests of social inclusion, the reduction of economic imbalances between the country’s regions must continue. Maintaining social security at a level commensurate with the national economy’s performance and assuring adequate child protection are both in our national interest. We must also be capable of sustaining our social and child protection systems in extraordinary situations.

159) Hungary must be ready to tackle challenges, risks and threats in cyberspace, to guarantee an adequate level of cyber security, to perform cyber defence tasks, and to assure the uninterrupted functioning of critical national information infrastructure. The primary tasks include the identification and tracking of actual or potential challenges, risks and threats appearing in cyberspace, reinforcing governmental coordination, developing the legal regulation of cyberspace, promoting cybersecurity awareness among users, strengthening the protection of governmental info-communications systems, critical national information infrastructure, classified information, and national data assets, together with the expansion of international cooperation in relation to cyber security. Military cyber defence must increasingly be enabled to support kinetic operations in cyberspace, and offensive cyber capability must be developed. This calls for developing the cyber defence and cyber operations forces of the Hungarian Defence Forces.

160) It is vital to strengthen national cyber defence capabilities based on Hungarian research and development and the provision of modern technical equipment. In view of the complex nature of cyber defence tasks, partnerships must be developed among public and private sector actors, educational and scientific institutions and individual users.

161) The role of artificial intelligence in the current and future technological developments is of primary importance, and its application must be expanded accordingly. The infrastructure and human resources that enable the development and safe operation of systems based on artificial intelligence by establishing the appropriate legal environment and other responsibilities must be concentrated.

162) It is inconceivable to effectively meet challenges related to cyberspace without international cooperation. We are actively participating in international efforts aimed at drawing up and implementing norms for responsible behaviour within global cyberspace, and confidence-building measures aimed at increasing global cyber security.

163) As part of taking action against operations that endanger public order and public safety, fake news and their sources and disseminators must be identified; at the same time, the efficacy of our strategic communications must be increased. Strategically oriented, well-structured, governmental communication and the proper, timely and credible notification of both domestic and foreign public opinion could play a central role in preventing events that could endanger Hungary’s security or countering their consequences.

164) In the interest of exposing and countering hybrid attacks, the instruments and methods of prevention, detection, intelligence, counterintelligence, information fusion activities and mitigation measures must be applied in a coordinated manner, built on close cooperation between state agencies.

165) In view of Hungary’s deteriorating security environment, it is necessary to further develop the capabilities of the national security services, with a particular emphasis on the concentrated system of instruments to acquire secret information. In accordance with the security risk factors affecting Hungary, closer cooperation must be developed with the intelligence and counterintelligence organisations of Allied and EU states.

166) The activities of the national security services are crucial for Hungary’s sovereignty, the protection of its lawful order, the realisation of its security policy goals, and the promotion of its national security interests. The protection of political, military and economic information necessitates the application of modern and efficiently coordinated intelligence and counterintelligence capabilities. Through the effective use of their special operational equipment and methods, the basic task of the national security services is to detect and prevent covert attempts to endanger Hungary’s national interests, and to identify the state or non-state actors behind these attempts. A significant part of contemporary security challenges is of a global and regional nature, and accordingly, Hungary’s national security services, while asserting national interests, must develop effective international cooperation with (primarily allied) partner services.

167) Appearing in the space sector – which provides high added value, high technological know-how, and is based on innovation – is exceedingly important, and is a prerequisite for accessing the economic, national security and defence-related areas of space. Our goal is to set up a system tailored entirely to the 21st century, featuring the world’s state-of-the-art technologies, including a significant contribution from the Hungarian industry, which will give Hungary an extraordinary weight both within NATO and also worldwide.

168) Hungary’s international development policy is also formed by security policy aspects, as a lack of sustainable economic and social development increases instability. Our international development policy aims to deal with the root causes of challenges, and focuses on supporting regions that have a significant influence on our security.

169) Particular attention must be paid to health security, which in addition to a highly competent healthcare system also features responsiveness at the operational and the authorities’ level related to public health and epidemiological challenges that originate from nature or man. In extreme cases, we must be prepared to employ the military in order to counter epidemiological emergencies (participation in evacuation and maintaining quarantine, policing personal movement, participation in curbing a wave of migration and/or crime, the operation of military hospitals, etc.).

170) Further adequate responses must be found for issues related to the security of vaccines and pharmaceutical production, while taking into account patent protection, the economies of scale of production, and the sustainability of healthcare systems. Specific attention must be paid to the protection of patients’ personal data.

171) In order to create environmental security, it is indispensable to increase the protection of water sources and arable land and the ecosystems that are inherently linked to them, to preserve biodiversity, to ensure the conditions required to provide the population with sanitary drinking water and foodstuffs that have not been modified genetically, to improve air quality, to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and to increase the level of preparedness of bodies related to public health, animal health and plant health. The broadest possible international cooperation is indispensable to achieving effective protection against climate change.

172) In the interest of guaranteeing Hungarian food safety, the set of conditions that govern the functioning of authorities responsible for the supervision of the food supply chain must be improved. This includes the development of crisis management capabilities, establishing a tracking system for foodstuffs and creating an IT system that stores data on the whole food chain in order to facilitate risk analysis and risk management. Moreover, increasing the crisis management and prevention capabilities of Hungarian enterprises with an interest in the food supply chain must also be supported.

173) Hungary prioritises the effective protection of critical infrastructure required to maintain the country’s everyday living conditions, the functioning of the economy and state administration. We must assure the capability to prevent and counter the potential disruption or manipulation of the functioning of this infrastructure. If unsuccessful, we then need to ensure that these instances of disruption or manipulation are short, exceptional and as manageable as possible. We place a particular emphasis on Hungary’s nuclear security.

174) Specific attention must be paid to a comprehensive reduction in the risk of disasters. Hungary must possess capabilities that form a complex disaster prevention and risk reduction system, which in cases of natural or industrial disasters, health-related crises, or attacks causing mass injuries and destruction can react effectively in order to minimise damage and protect the population’s lives, health and material assets. Taking into account our geographical position and the often cross-border nature of natural and industrial disasters, cooperation with neighbouring countries in disaster management must be intensified, while mapping opportunities for mutual assistance.

175) Defence against weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, cyberattacks, hybrid operations and disasters alike demand an increase in Hungary’s national resilience.

X Final Provisions

176) State bodies shall continuously evaluate matters of national and international security and threats in accordance with their expertise, and shall take all necessary steps in order to prevent and meet them. Their security-related activities must be in harmony with Hungary’s National Security Strategy.

177) The organisations responsible for the various components of security shall draw up and revise regulatory provisions within their own remit based on the guidance provided in this document. When drawing up sectoral strategies, the ministries must consider that these have to be in harmony with the provisions of Hungary’s National Security Strategy.

178) The state organisations responsible for the various components of security shall draw up and revise sectoral regulatory provisions within their remit in harmony with the guidelines in Hungary’s National Security Strategy, with a particular focus on the national fields of military, law enforcement, national security, counterterrorism, disaster management, cybersecurity and migration.

179) Hungary’s National Security Strategy must be revised should a significant change in Hungary’s security environment or in any other important condition occur.